# Comprensión de la comprensión de listas anidadas

I want to understand nested list comprehension. Below, I listed a list comprehension expression and their for loop equivalent.
I wonder if my understanding is correct on those.

Por ejemplo,

``````[(min([row[i] for row in rows]),max([row[i] for row in rows]))
for i in range(len(rows))]
``````

es equivalente a

``````result=[]
for i in range(len(rows)):
innerResult=[]
for row in rows:
innerResult.append(row[i])
innerResult2=[]
for row in rows:
innerResult2.append(row[i])
tuple=(min(innerResult), max(innerResult2))
result.append(tuple)
``````

If I may generalize, I guess

``````[exp2([exp1 for x in xSet]) for y in ySet]
``````

form can be translated to the following. (I hope I'm correct on this)

``````result=[]
for y in ySet:
innerResult =[]
for x in xSet:
innerResult.append(exp1)
exp2Result = exp2(innerResult)
result.append(exp2Result)
``````

For simpler case,

``````[exp1 for x in xSet for y in ySet]
``````

es igual a

``````result=[]
for x in xSet:
for y in ySet:
result.append(exp1)
``````

mientras que,

``````[[exp1 for x in xSet] for y in ySet]
``````

es igual a

``````result=[]
for y in ySet:
innerResult=[]
for x in xSet:
innerResult.append(exp1)
result.append(innerResult)
``````

I asked a similar question on Equivalente para expresión de bucle para comprensión de listas complejas
The answers given there reconstruct the form after understanding what it does internally.
I'd like to know how it works systematically so I can apply the concept to other slightly varying examples.

preguntado el 08 de noviembre de 11 a las 11:11

Side note: In your example, you could have transpuesto the rows into columns using `cols = zip(*rows)`, after which you could have simply used `min(col)` y `max(col)` para cada columna: `[(min(c), max(c)) for c in cols]`. Or in one short line: `[(min(c), max(c)) for col in zip(*rows)]`. -

Would it be true, and improve clarity, if you were to write exp1(x,y) instead of just exp1 ? I pensar it's implied, but would like to be sure? -

@GreenAsJade well, yes that would work, exp1 was meant to be expression1 -

## 2 Respuestas

Indeed, you are correct. This is described in detail in the Expressions section in the Python Language Reference.

Note especially the order of nesting of several `for`s in a single list comprehension, which is always left-to-right:

``````>>> matrix = [[1, 2], [3, 4]]
>>> [item for item in row for row in matrix] # oops!
Traceback (most recent call last):
File "<pyshell#1>", line 1, in <module>
[item for item in row for row in matrix]
NameError: name 'row' is not defined
>>> [item for row in matrix for item in row] # nesting is in left-to-right order
[1, 2, 3, 4]
``````

respondido 08 nov., 11:16

I've looked at the link. Indeed, there's an explanation for [item for row in matrix for item in row] but couldn't find explanation for [[exp for item in row] for row in matrix] format. Am I missing something from the grammar listed there? - eugene

You're not missing anything, but that's because your example doesn't use any more special grammar, it is just two simple list comprehensions! The first `[exp for item in row]` will create a list given a row. The "outer" list comprehension will create a list, in which each item is a list created by the "inner" list-comp, one for each row in the matrix. - taleinat

Oh. As you pointed out in your answer, the order is important. And, I was wondering if there's a section on library reference which talks about ordering of [[list comprehension] list comprehension] format. - eugene

There in no such section in the docs that I know of. The reason is that in a list comprehension, the expression evaluated for each item can be any valid Python expression. In this context, an "inner" list comprehension is just like any other Python expression. - taleinat

wow whee.. am I the only one surprised by this ordering: now an explanation why the macro level (matrix in this case..) occurs before the nested/micro level (row level..) might be in order.. - WestCoastProyectos

La respuesta corta es: yes, you are correct in your understanding.

There's only a catch: the way you normally use nested list comprehension in python code is to operate on multidimensional arrays.

A typical example is when you operate on matrices:

``````>>> matrix = [[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6], [7, 8, 9]]
>>> [[el - 1 for el in row] for row in matrix]
[[0, 1, 2], [3, 4, 5], [6, 7, 8]]
``````

As you can see the "nesting" works by operating on each dimension of the matrix.

In the examples you provided, it seems that `ySet` [unfortunate name btw, as conjuntos are one of the types provided with python] is just a generic counter, which makes a bit harder to follow what is going on under the hood.

``````>>> rows = ([1, 2, 3], [10, 20, 30])
>>> [(min([row[i] for row in rows]),max([row[i] for row in rows])) for i in range(len(rows))]
[(1, 10), (2, 20), (3, 30)]
``````

Es posible que desee mirar en el Código Postal función incorporada:

``````>>> zip(rows, rows)
[(1, 10), (2, 20), (3, 30)]
``````

or for maximum brevity and elegance:

``````>>> zip(*rows)
[(1, 10), (2, 20), (3, 30)]
``````

HTH!

respondido 08 nov., 11:16

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